It is not the purpose of propaganda to create a series of alterations in sentiment to please this blasé gentry. Its chief function is to convince the masses, whose slowness of understanding needs to be given time in order that they may absorb information; and only constant repetition will finally succeed in imprinting an idea on the memory of the crowd (Hitler, Mein Kampf, translated into English by James Murphy, February 1939, p. 159-160).
The bottom line is this: If one keeps repeating a lie, people will believe it is true. The whole thing reminds me of the American Wrestling Association (AWA) case. Although everyone knew that professional wrestling was fake, their fans did not care. They continued to watch it even after the AWA finally admitted it. It is a broken record mentality.
Let me start with a misunderstanding that flows everywhere. Those who know of the manner Julius Caesar died are familiar with the statement, "Et tu Brute". But there is not one ancient author, Roman or Greek, to support such an expression.
It is found only in Shakespeare's play, "Julius Caesar," Act 3, Scene 1, line 85 (FTLN 1238), where Caesar states: "Et tu, Brutè?—Then fall, [he] dies." The above is repeated on and on to the point that almost everyone believes Julius Caesar cried "Et tu Brute" as he fell to his death.
But according to Suetonius who wrote about Caesar's life, Caesar did not say "et tu Brute"; what he said was in Greek, καὶ σὺ τέκνον; (; = ?), which is a free translation meaning, "even you, my child?"
Here is the original.
Atque ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est uno modo ad primum ictum gemitu sine voce edito, etsi tradiderunt quidam Marco Bruto irruenti dixisse: καὶ σὺ τέκνον;
And here is the translator's adaptation of the original text.
And in this wise, he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, "You too, my child?" (C. Suetonius Tranquillus, The Lives of the Twelve Caesars - The Life of Julius Caesar (Divus Julius) the Loeb Classical Library, 1913).
That Caesar and his environment spoke or wrote in Greek is clearly stated in Plutarch's The Parallel Lives - The Life of Julius Caesar, 46, 2 and 66.7. The keyword is ἑλληνιστὶ in the original or "in Greek" in the English translation.
Politics and Truth
The only truth in Politics is perception. The winner is the side that persuades the public for its version of the story. A constant repetition creates a narrative in which the proponents of special interests in the specific matter take advantage and amplify, like a megaphone, a fabrication to achieve their goals and objectives. One could call it propaganda; after all, propaganda means propagation.
The infamous Greek lobby
Although the term Greek lobby started as a joke in the offices of the U.S. Congress, wishful thinking became a fact in the minds of the Greeks whether they lived in the United States or abroad, including Greece. We had kind of a lobby when the late Archbishop Iakovos was a functional primate. However, Archbishop Iakovos' power and love for Greek issues bothered a few in Greece, especially the Greek American community, forcing him to resign. The chopped Greek Orthodox primacy in America that followed speaks volumes. No, it was not Turkey nor the Ecumenical Patriarchate behind it. It was Greek Americans who did it. A group of affluent Greek Americans was behind the scheme, which they coordinated with politicians of Greece to protect the earlier interests. Thus now, we have NO voice.
The other day, a good friend of mine admitted to me that he discussed with the editor of a major Toronto-based Greek newspaper the issue of the Greek Genocide. The editor told him that my friend's views about the case of the Greek Genocide are dangerous, and he would lose his advertisement dollars if he dared discuss the Greek Genocide. In all likelihood, he'd probably lose funding from the Greek MFA as well. The same Greek newspaper claims they pursue all subjects objectively, except the Genocide. That subject is "untouchable" in Toronto."
I have learned in my 30-year service as a U.S. Army Cryptologic Linguist, Lead Senior All-Source Intelligence Analyst, Foreign Disclosures Officer, and Military Instructor on Strategy:
1. Do Not Discount Discipline
2. Excellence is a Habit
3. There is NO 'I ' in Teamwork
4. Readiness is Responsibility
5. Guarantee that something is being done
6. Results Matter
The so-called Greek "lobby" has met NONE of them.
The “Macedonians” of Skopje
We live in the age of information, misinformation, and disinformation through public media and social media. It started with the radio and television, and there is an end in sight.
Greece should have taken advantage of it by spreading facts when Yugoslavia associated the Hunza tribe with its "Macedonians" using ANY means possible and disseminated the newly found "truths" via documentaries in the 1960s and 1970s.
We saw and still see the effectiveness of repetition in the case of the Macedonia name dispute. The issue started in the mid-1940s when Federative Yugoslavia put an indirect claim over the Greek region. To contribute to a successful outcome, Yugoslavia named one of its constituent republics "Macedonia," giving the new name international recognition. However, as time passed, constant, fierce, and unrelentless repetition forced the revised history into school books of various countries, including the United States. Yugoslavia's historical poppycock bore fruit as Greece's unparallel sluggard behavior accompanied it. It was behind the success of Skopje, which forced Greece to sign the Prespa Agreement in 2018.
Turkey and its Army
The Turkish media and government keep disseminating disinformation about Turkey's baseless position regarding the legality behind the militarization of the islands. Thus far, Greece has assisted the Turks in rallying moral support against the "warmongering" Greeks. There is no question that Greece is legally correct under international law. Still, it seems that media and politicians are either ignorant or indifferent. Repetition on the one hand and silence on the other.
What about the myth that Turks are fierce fighters? The tale started in Korea under very militarily questionable criteria dumped journalists with non-military backgrounds and, through repetition, is still alive.
In 1954, a Turkish film titled Şimal Yıldızı after the Turkish Brigade's name, directed by Aıtf Yımaz Batbeki and starring Ayhan Işk, was released, praising the unit's performance.
Here is some reality: Certain Turkish patrols consistently reported high losses. In general, they preferred to be on the offensive and handled it quite well. They were not as good at defensive positions and indeed never retreated. The Turks, armed and trained by American military advisers, did better than even they had hoped or expected to do. But that does not mean that they did well. Regardless of the so-called accomplishments of the Turkish Army in Korea, the fact is that they had participated in three battles with a fourth assigned a rear-guard duty.
The total number of Turkish troops was 14,936 men who served in the 1st Brigade from 1950 to 1953, with about 5,455 troops in Korea at one time.
In the U.N. offensive and the Chinese counter-offensive, the 1st Turkish Brigade suffered 3,514 casualties, of which 741 were killed in action, 2,068 wounded, 163 MIA, and 244 taken prisoner, as well as 298 noncombatant casualties. This is an indicator of about a 24% casualty rate.
So, achievement always depends on the standard one sets. If the standards are low, anything above that is an achievement.
But such a bad performance did not stop the friends of Turkey from promoting it. For example, in one of the episodes of M.A.S.H. Turkish soldiers were projected as courageous, who face danger and even death with defiance while simultaneously benevolent. Sergeant Attias was a Turkish army sergeant who made a single appearance in the Season 5 episode of the CBS-TV series M*A*S*H titled "Post Op." The part of Attias was played by Argentinian-born actor Zitto Kazann.
As insignificant as it seems, it remained in viewers' sub-conscientious minds.
Also, the Turkish Army, especially its officer corps, lacked experience since their first actual combat was in World War I and the Greco-Turkish war (1919–1922). In addition, Turkey was neutral during WWII, although unofficially was on the side of the Nazis.
We saw the performance of the Turkish military in the invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Forty thousand men of an army with far superior equipment invaded a small country with lightly armed national guardsmen. The lightly armed National Guard of Cyprus immobilized the invading force in the perimeter of Kyrenia's beaches for ten days. Then, after the U.N.S.C. declared a ceasefire and the Greek Cypriot forces stopped fighting, the Turks advanced to the present-day occupied lands. The Turkish air force lost 19 aircraft against no opposing air force and the navy lost two ships against no existing navy. The Turkish ships had collided with each other; the Israelis had fished the sailors out of the water.
This is the case that the Turkish General Staff and politicians have done an excellent job silencing their military ineptness. Yet, for a country that prides itself on its mighty armed forces, it is incomprehensible that its political and military leaders are afraid of their own shadows. Seeing enemies everywhere is paranoia, but they know they precipitate regional instability. It goes to the heart of Turkey's education system, and by that, I mean formal, informal, and non-formal education.
Regarding the bravado tactics of both Tayyip Erdoğan and Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu against Greece, I must stress that those two should consider the fact that what they think their military can do is not what their military is capable of doing.
Being browbeating creatures habitually cruel, insulting, and threatening their neighbor who, solely in their minds, is vulnerable to their whims, helps neither their country nor themselves. Greece is not Cyprus. Of course, they both know it because if they were confident that the Turkish military would have an easy time taking the Greek armed forces without any political or military cost, they would have already done it. The Aegean islands are LEGALLY Greek territory, and since their militarization was legally accepted in 1936 by Turkey and 1947 by the international community, Turkey has NO legal case.
On the contrary, such actions might even earn them the fate of Adnan Menderes, who was accused of orchestrating the September pogrom against Turkish citizens of Greek descent! As a result, he hunged in prison on the tiny island of İmralı just south of the Sea of Marmara and west of the Armutlu-Bozburun peninsula within Bursa Prefecture.
USSR / Russia
World War II – USSR
Sheer superior numbers of troops do not guarantee a military victory. Instead, other factors contribute to whether a victory translates to success or failure. But here, I must stress that soldiers fight to win the war; politicians are responsible for winning the peace.
Many people will state that Russia was only part of the USSR, so it is unfair to stick USSR's, i.e., communist crimes, to Russia. The fact is that Russia was the driving force behind USSR's sociopolitical and military development.
Here is the first stanza of the national anthem of the USSR between 1943 and 1991.
Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!
An unbreakable union of free republics,
Great Russia has united forever.
Long live, the creation of the people's will,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945–1991) and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic were among the first countries that signed the United Nations Charter, becoming founding members of the United Nations among 51 countries.
So, the USSR had three votes in the UNGA and occasionally two or even three votes in the UNSC, depending on the UNSC rotation. However, only the USSR had the veto power. Isn't it interesting that out of 15 USSR republics, only Russia became the only heir of the USSR in the UNSC?
Most Russians used to the WWII storyline that, thanks to the will of the Soviet people and the ingenuity of its leadership, overcame the enemy, i.e., Hitler's hordes. There is no doubt that the Soviet people gave their lives at war. There is no doubt that religion contributed to the victory after Stalin weaponized it for his survival. The above is true in some sense. But the ordinary person had never ventured to consider the above, which was summarily constructed and propagated during the periods between the death of Stalin and then the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev. After all, someone had to be blamed for millions of deaths during and after Stalin.
The whole idea is to offer history and the sources that it arrives from with all its glory and shame. There is no doubt that "the victors write history." But the challenge is to expose all facts, so that upcoming generations learn lessons of success and failures to replicate the earlier and reject the latter in the future.
Aiming at knowing the facts, we can discover the truth that the leadership of the USSR and now Russia willfully ignore. First, we must overview some of the most controversial events and battles of the war to single out the cause for failure. We must understand that many have abandoned facts and truth, especially in Russia.
However, it could be worse had it not been for the military and economic assistance for the West and especially the United States. The allies in the anti-Hitler coalition, which was finally formed in the summer of 1942, aided the Soviet Union in its fight against a common enemy. In addition, the economies of the United States and Great Britain were militarily increasingly rebuilt. In 1942, more than 2,500 aircraft, 3,000 tanks, about 79,000 cars, radio equipment, sonar devices, gasoline, food, footwear, etc., were delivered to the USSR under lend-lease. However, by the end of 1942, the Americans and British had fulfilled 55 percent of the agreed-upon supply programs to the USSR. In 1941-45, the USSR received only 7% of the goods sent from the United States during the war years. The bulk of the weapons and other materials were received by the Soviet Union in 1944-1945 (Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation - The Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, 2012) (translation from Russian to English is mine). 
In October 1941 - June 1942, the most significant part of the Lend-Lease supply tonnage (1.42 million tons in total) was metals (about 30%) and products (22%), military equipment was in third place (15%), slightly ahead of oil products (12%). Including British aid, armaments and explosives were roughly equal in volume to products. However, the United States and its allies in the Pacific were at war in December 1941. In addition, Japan forced the British and American industries to restrict their supply options and intensify hostilities in North Africa.
Under the second protocol, the USSR and the Allies signed deliveries in June 1942 (July 1942 - June 1943), two of which were - 3.1 million tons. A third of them were food (24%), metals, military equipment (15%). Oil products, explosives, and equipment filled 7%, 6%, and 5% of the tonnage, respectively.
The most significant deliveries were under the third protocol (July 1943 - June 1944), including 5.75 million tons. However, 30% of deliveries were products as 18% metals, the share of military and transport vehicles decreased to 13%, oil products, explosives, and equipment equalized - 8% each.
Under the fourth protocol, the USSR received another 5.5 million tons of aid before May 12, 1945. This time the share of products and metals was almost equal (21 and 20%, respectively), the volume of oil products (13%) was ahead of military equipment and transport (12% ). The volume of equipment reached 9%. In addition, compared with the second period, the role of transport equipment has increased dramatically (from 1% to 6%).
Eleven million tons of 15.7 million tons of cargo during the war with Germany (more than 200,000 tons arrived before the conclusion of the first protocol), or 70.7%, were received from the second half of 1943 to May 1945.
Stalin was very familiar with the "Murmansk Run" (from 1941 through 1945), the shortest and most direct route that about 40 convoys totaling more than 800 merchant ships used to supply the USSR. About 350 of those ships were under the U. S. flag.
An article published on the science page of Gazeta.RU by Ekaterina Shutova on March 11, 2016, under the title: How the Americans supplied the USSR with goods: 75 years ago, an act was signed on providing goods from the United States to the allies, offering similar accounts.
In total, during the war years, the USSR received 44,000 American jeeps, 375,883 trucks, 8,071 tractors, and 12,700 tanks. In addition, thanks to the United States, the country received 1,541,590 blankets, 331,066 liters of alcohol, 15,417,000 pairs of army boots, 106,893 tons of cotton, 2,670,000 tons of petroleum products and 4,478,000 tons of food supplies (translation from Russian to English is mine)
In 1963, the Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov had admitted the fact that the United States Allies had helped the USSR in its war efforts,
When we entered the war, we were still a backward country in the industrial sense as compared to Germany ... Today [in 1963] some say the Allies really didn't help us…, But, listen, one cannot deny that the Americans shipped over to us matériel without which we could not have equipped our armies held in reserve or been able to continue the war … We did not have enough munitions [and] how would we have been able to turn out all those tanks without the rolled steel sent to us by the Americans? To believe what they say [in the USSR] today, you'd think we had all this in abundance!" (Weeks 1970, 94).
The Katyń Massacre
One of the poppycock that circulated a lot by the Soviets was the massacre of Katyń. It is another example of repetition deemed effective in the case of the USSR and Russia's accessory after the fact in the Katyń Massacre.
In April 1943, Nazi Germany's authorities declared the discovery of mass graves in the Katyń Forest. Stalin severed diplomatic relations with the Polish government-in-exile in London after the latter requested an investigation by the International Committee of the Red Cross. The Soviet Union claimed that the Nazis had murdered the victims.
The Katyń massacre was a series of mass executions of nearly 22,000 Polish military officers and intelligentsia in April and May 1940 by the Soviet Union. Specifically, the NKVD (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел or People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs), the Soviet secret police. This shocking crime is known as the Katyń Massacre, after executions within the timberland at Katyń, near Smolensk. In addition, The Russians executed the Polish officers in prison camps at Kozelsk, Starobyelsk, near Kharkiv in Ukraine and Belarus.
The slaughter had started based on NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria's proposition to Joseph Stalin to execute all Polish officer prisoners of war. The Soviet Politburo under Stalin's grip affirmed such an illegal act.
The total number of murdered individuals, almost 8,000, were officers detained amid the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland. Over and above that, another 6,000 were police officers. The remaining 8,000 were Polish intelligentsia that the Soviets considered "intelligence agents, gendarmes, landowners, saboteurs, factory owners, lawyers, officials, and priests."
The Polish Armed Forces Officer Corps represented the multi-ethnic Polish state. The slaughtered officers included ethnic Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Jews, including the chief Rabbi of the Polish Armed Forces, Baruch Steinberg.
After the fall of the USSR, prosecutors of the Soviet Union (1990–1991) and the Russian Federation (1991–2004) conducted a thorough investigation confirming Soviet responsibility for the massacres. However, the commissions refuse to classify the matter as a war crime or as an act of mass murder. Furthermore, the commissions closed the investigation since the perpetrators had already died. The Russian government would not classify the dead as victims of the Great Purge. Under these circumstances, a formal posthumous rehabilitation was deemed inapplicable. In November 2010, the Russian State Duma or Parliament approved a declaration blaming Stalin and other Soviet officials for ordering the massacre. The falsified Soviet version of the events has become known as the "Katyń lie."
However, Russia kept denying responsibility for the massacres till 1990, when the Russian government officially recounted and condemned the NKVD's killings, as the Soviet government's subsequent cover-up and disinformation campaign through repetition.
Under the title" Russia removes memorial to Katyń Massacre in new attack on historical truth," the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group explains Russia's determination to erase facts. 
Despite the above, here is also the harsh reality of WWII for the Soviet Union, according to Viktor Suvorov.
The Soviet forces surrendered to Hitler in regiments, divisions, corps, and Armies. In September 1941, the 5th, 21st, 26th, and 37th Armies surrendered simultaneously and without resistance. In May 1942, the whole of the South-Western Front, the 6th, 9th and 57th Armies, the 2nd, 5th, and 6th Cavalry I Corps, the 21st and 23rd Tank Corps surrendered in the Kharkov [today Karkiv] area. They fought for four days and laid down their arms on the fifth. At the same moment, the 2nd Shock Army capitulated on the North-Western Front. What is more, they then turned their weapons against the Communists. Soldiers, officers, and generals of every nationality of the Soviet Union surrendered, although the Russians were the most numerous, both in numbers and as a percentage of the total Russian population of the country. The Russian Liberation Army was the largest of all the anti-Communist forces, drawn from the inhabitants of the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, which were set up during the Second World War. By the end of the war, it consisted of approximately one million Russian soldiers and officers, who had chosen to fight against the Soviet Army could have been still larger than this, but Hitler would not give his wholehearted support to Lieutenant-General A. Vlasov, the leader of the Russian anti-Communist movement. With unbelievable short-sightedness, he embarked upon a bloodthirsty campaign of terror against the inhabitants of the territories occupied by his armies. Compared to the liberation and collectivisation campaigns carried out by the Communists, this terror was relatively mild, but it deprived Hitler of any hope of winning the laurels of a champion of freedom. (Suvorov 1982, 145-6).
In May 1941, a German Junkers-52 invaded Soviet airspace and, unnoticed landed safely at the central airfield in Moscow near the Dynamo stadium. The above incident caused a stir in the Kremlin and led to a wave of repression among the military command. It began with layoffs, followed by arrests and execution of the Air Force high command. This fascinating landing in the center of Moscow showed Hitler how weak the combat readiness of the Soviet armed forces was (Sudoplatov, 1977 - translation from Russian to English is mine).
Here are some of the victims
May 30: People's Commissar of Ammunition Ivan Sergeyev and Major General Ernst Schacht
May 31: Lieutenant General Pyotr Pumpur
June 7: People's Commissar of Armaments Boris Vannikov and Colonel General Grigory Shtern
June 8: Lieutenant General Yakov Smushkevich
June 18: Lieutenant General Pavel Alekseyev
June 19: Colonel General Alexander Loktionov
June 24: General Kirill Meretskov and Lieutenant General Pavel Rychagov
June 27: Lieutenant General Ivan Proskurov
Stalin's political purge was primarily an attempt to eliminate challenges from past and potential opposition groups, including the left and right wings led by Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Bukharin, respectively.
According to official figures, 777,975 executions for political reasons occurred between 1929 and 1953. Of them, 681,692 executions took place in 1937 and 1938. Unofficial accounts appraise the number of Stalinism suppression deaths in 1937 and 1938 at 700,000–1,200,000.
The Red Army Officer Corps' purge was a power play that resulted in Stalin consolidating his power as leader of the Soviet Union. The loss of nearly the entire command structure of the Red Army had substantial adverse effects on the ability of the Soviet Union to win a war.
Such purges, however, could cost the USSR the victory and indeed territory since Stalin eliminated competent people replacing them with individuals loyal to his person, but with inadequate training, skills, and capabilities. As a result, Stalin got the people he wanted to have around, but he almost lost his country. Unfortunately, Putin repeats Stalin's mistakes.
A consistent reiteration makes a story in which the proponents of uncommon interface within the particular matter take advantage and increase, like an amplifier, a creation to realize their objectives and goals. One may call it publicity; after all, publicity implies engendering.
So, one must be very careful what one obtains through media, especially social media. A reliable source provides a thorough, well-reasoned theory, argument, discussion, etc., based on solid evidence.
Individuals, prisoners of illusions, must free themselves from the cave and realize that the shadows on the wall are not reality. They must recognize and see the higher levels of reality. But, be that as it may, those liberated must offer assistance to the other prisoners of the cave, as Plato suggested. They do not indeed crave to leave their mental prison, their illusory truth effect, for they know no better life.
 Помощь Советскому Союзу в борьбе против общего врага оказывали союзники по антигитлеровской коалиции, которая окончательно сложилась к лету 1942 г. Экономика США и Великобритании все больше перестраивалась на военный лад. В 1942 г. по ленд-лизу в СССР было поставлено более 2,5 тыс. самолетов, 3 тыс. танков, около 79 тыс. автомобилей, радиотехнические средства, гидроакустические приборы, бензин, продовольствие, обувь и прочее. Однако «к концу 1942 г. согласованные программы поставок в СССР были выполнены американцами и англичанами на 55%. В 1941–1942 гг. в СССР поступило всего 7% отправленных за годы войны из США грузов. Основное количество вооружения и других материалов было получено Советским Союзом в 1944–1945 годах» (Российская военная энциклопедия, Великая отечественная война 1941-45 г. в 12 томах. 2012. Москва: Кучково поле. Toм 3, стр.358).
 Viktor Suvorov, Inside the Soviet Army (New York: Macmillan, 1982), 145-6. The author's birth name is Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, born in Barabash, Primorsky Krai (near Vladivostok Russia), Soviet Union.
 Павел А. Судоплатов, Спецоперации. Лубянка и Кремль 1930-1950 годы, ОЛМА-ПРЕСС, 1997 г. (Pavel A. Sudoplatov. Special operations. Lubyanka and the Kremlin 1930-1950, Olma-Press Publishing House, 1997)
В мае 1941года немецкий "Юнкерс-52" вторгся в советское воздушное пространство и, незамеченный, благополучно приземлился на центральном аэродроме в Москве возле стадиона "Динамо". Это вызвало переполох в Кремле и привело к волне репрессий в среде военного командования: началось с увольнений, затем последовали аресты и расстрел высшего командования ВВС. Это феерическое приземление в центре Москвы показало Гитлеру, насколько слаба боеготовность советских вооруженных сил.
About Marcus A. Templar
Professor Marcus A. Templar is a former U.S. Army Cryptologic Linguist (Language Analyst), Signal Intelligence and All-Source Intelligence Analyst. During his career as a U.S. Intelligence Officer, besides organizational duties, he discharged the responsibilities of a U.S. Army Observer/Controller, Instructor of Intelligence Courses specializing in Deconstruction of Strategies, Foreign Disclosures Officer, and Translator Interpreter of Serbo-Croatian.
He is the Macedonian League's National Security Advisor.
About the Macedonian League
We are an international professional Hellenic advocacy group. Our primary purpose is to advance our interests to informed and responsive governments on issues concerning Greece's national security and territorial integrity.
As of 12 February 2019, the Macedonian League's main focus is on the “Prespes Agreement", as this Agreement is a serious national security issue for Greece and the wider Balkan region.
The Macedonian League also focuses on exposing and combating anti-Hellenism and analyzing political developments in Skopje.
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