"During the meeting of the Political Secretariat of the Balkan Regional Section on January 11, 1934, the Comintern established the resolution on "The Macedonian Question and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - United (IMRO-U)" under protocol No 207. The Balkan secretariat filed the resolution for its records under log No 815 on on 23 February 1934, i.e. two days before Dimitrov reached Moscow - on 25 February 1934. It is mentioned as one of the most important documents for the creation of the Macedonian nation-state aka the Balkan Federation."
Held: April 12, 2017 | Video Published: April 19, 2017
By Marcus A. Templar – U.S. Army Cryptologic Linguist, and All-Source Intelligence Analyst of the Defense Intelligence Agency (Retd.)
“Considering everything Erdogan has done so far, he is seeking not only political power, but also religious power. If he could, he would become a caliph.”
Marcus Alexander Templar comments on Turkey’s drift towards authoritarianism and theocracy, as well as deterioration of its relations with Europe.
From the EMF Conference Part 12: The Strategic Culture of Turkey
By Marcus A. Templar – U.S. Army Cryptologic Linguist, and All-Source Intelligence Analyst of the Defense Intelligence Agency (Retd.)
EMF Conference 5-7 December 2016, Larnaca, Cyprus
Turkey’s internal and foreign policies are a result of national personality shaped by Turkey’s strategic culture. This culture is characterised by uncertainty and insecurity. The former is reflected in Turkey’s fixation with unity in homogeneity, culture and sameness, while the latter in a conspiratorial mindset, distrust, and militarization. Marcus A. Templar explores the reasons behind Turkey’s strategic culture, and helps explain certain continuity and pattern in Turkey’s behaviour, which occurs regardless of time and its political system.
Australian Macedonian[sic] Communities of Western Australia Challenges the Political Environment in Which Our Values Flourish
In published declarations, the so-called Australian Macedonian[sic] Communities of Western Australia (hence AMCWA) falsely claim events, statements, and hidden agendas of the Greek diaspora and the Greek government. As the late U.S. Senator Patrick Moynihan once stated, “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not his own facts.” In such tapestry of disinformation, misinformation, fairy tale, and myth the AMCWA identify the national interests of the Australian government with the national interests of the FYROM. All this is done at the mercy of truths only known to the FYROM citizens and diaspora.
Starting with facts, Greece is a politically unitary country, which for administrative purposes, governments change districts as sees it fit. Borders of districts do not reflect externally recognized boundaries as it happened in the former Yugoslavia. Northern Greece is a geographical term, which includes the regions of Macedonia and Western Thrace. At present, Eastern Macedonia and Western Thrace make up one administrative unit while Central, and Western Macedonia make up the other two.
The Bulgarian Vasil Kanchov (Kanchev) designed the map that included the area of the FYROM in Macedonia in 1900 under orders from Sofia. Commenting on such a map, H. R. Wilkinson stated, “the validity of Kanchev’s concept of Macedonia as a geographical region depends on upon the criteria used to measure regional affinities” (H. R. Wilkinson 1952, 392). The present map of Greater Macedonia is the approximate equivalent of Kanchev’s map. After 1918, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes called the area of the FYROM South Serbia and later Governorate of Vardar.
The Greek region of Macedonia in modern times obtained its official name administratively in 1914 two years after its liberation by Greece, 30 years before the dictator Tito baptized it during the Yugoslav area.
It is interesting that while the FYROM Slavs describe the Greek region of Macedonia as “Northern Greece,” they convert the same region to “Macedonia” when it appears within the map of Greater Macedonia. The FYROM Slavs perceive the acronym “The FYROM” as derogatory because they seem to get self-gratification when they hear or read the word 'Macedonia.'
The fact is that the FYROM and its Slavic diaspora want to monopolize the term Macedonia as if this term exclusively belongs to them. The etymology of the Greek tribe “Macedonians” goes back long before the Trojan War, about 1500 BC. Homer, who wrote in the Aeolic dialect of Chios, offers us “the leaves of a tall poplar tree” (Odyssey 7:106). The Greek presence in Macedonia Proper and the Greekness of the ancient Macedonians are tendered by Strabo 7. Frag. 9, “Macedonia, of course, is a part of Greece"; Eusebius, 227; Paterculus I, 6, 5; Pausanias VI, 22; Herodotus VII.176; Thucydides VII. 57; IV 42.2; III.102; Strabo, VII.6; Herodotus VIII. 137-139; Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 255; Heurtley, BSA 32 (1931), 131-179; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. Makedon, the Rosetta Stone, and Katadesmos.
Although the adjective “Macedonian” always applied to all inhabitants of Macedonia as a regional name and not an ethnic one, the Third Communist International invented the “Macedonian” ethnicity for strictly political reasons on January 11, 1934 (Misirkov 1974, 158-9; Vlahov 1970, 21, 22, 357; Bechev 2009, XXX-XXXI).
The AMCWA claim that the name of their home country is “Macedonia”[sic] and not the FYROM. The fact according to UNSC the name is “‘the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’ pending settlement of the difference that has arisen over the name of the State,” Similarly, the symbol of the Sun of Vergina has been deemed a Greek symbol by the UNSC (UNSC Res. 817 (1993).
In a mirror image experience, the AMCWA condemn Greek associations for not following the policy of Greece, i.e. compromise on the name issue. Since when any FYROM organization and government have become advocates of compromise? A compromise is the result of mutuality. Nothing thus far has indicated that the FYROM and its diaspora are willing to compromise. The mere fact that they are glued to the “Republic of Macedonia” indicates an unpromising position. Greece has been very accommodating and generous to the FYROM by giving to the FYROM about 90% of what the FYROM sought, including an exit to the Aegean Sea through the port facilities in Thessaloniki.
Given the fact that the FYROM Slavs have full voting rights in the old country by Article 4 of the FYROM Constitution and the Law on Citizenship, the diaspora is an extension of their home country abroad acting as a proxy of the FYROM policy, which stands on a non-compromise strategy of obstructiveness. The AMCWA even ignore the UNSC directive that maintains the FYROM “shall cease to use in any way the symbol in all its forms displayed on its national flag,” i.e. the Sun of Vergina (Interim Agreement, Article 7.2).
However, the AMCWA might not be the peace-loving cultural organization that promotes itself. Through maps of a Greater Macedonia and the branding of the Sun of Vergina on its letterhead, the organization concurrently promotes irredentism and instills ethnic hate to their offspring.
Looking at expansionist maps of Greater Macedonia and Sun of Vergina flags demonstrated in classrooms, parades, and social events, even in churches, one cannot but conclude the incitement of hate and, also, future territorial claims in an official capacity. Regressing to the period before the 1982 Falkland Islands invasion by Argentina, we attest that similar publications had appeared in Argentina before the war because the Argentine had placed the mentality of the Argentinean people and encouraged the regime to attack a British territory. "A generation of schoolchildren had been taught that the Malvinas were Argentine. Postage stamps proclaimed that the Islands were a part of the Argentine Republic. Argentine maps labeled the Islands as "occupied territory" (LCDR Chenette, U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 1987). No Constitution of any country states that the national goal is to claim neighboring land. It happens over time through Executive or Parliamentary decisions. Article 3 of the FYROM Constitution allows for such a change.
The 1934 Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, Article 3, is explicit, “the political existence of a state is independent of recognition by the other states.” It means that the FYROM’s existence is independent of the number of the countries that recognize it, one of which is Greece. Greece recognizes the FYROM’s political existence by the ruling of the UNSC in which Greece and the FYROM had to solve their differences “in the interest of the maintenance of peaceful and good-neighbourly relations in the region (UNSC Res. 817 (1993)).
Since the FYROM provisionally was admitted to the UN, any modification in that name forfeits the terms of its admission to the UN. By the way, a municipality regardless of its size is not a contracting state to “recognize” a country. Only naïve people believe it. Australia is not Bulgaria and the year is not 1885. The only legal entity that has authority over issues of international law is the federal government of Australia. In any respect, the FYROM is not “Macedonia” unless Greece says so.
Two peoples in the Balkans, the Bulgarians, and the FYROM Slavs share language, heroes, heritage, including churches and yet, while the Bulgarians are Slavs, the AMCWA want the world to believe that they are not Slavs, but “ethnic” Macedonians[sic]. Denko Maleski, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the FYROM (1991-1993) and ambassador to the UN (1993-1997), stated on the matter, “There is nothing atypical here for the process of the creation of any modern nation, except when a falsification was made by substituting the word Bulgarian with the word Macedonian[sic]. However, whenever that was impossible, historical figures were declared to be Bulgarian agents who somehow had entered into a created pure imaginary Macedonian[sic] space.” (Denko Maleski, Utrinski Vesnik, March 03, 2007).
In another point of a nationalistic mirage, the AMCWA claim that “a large minority of ethnic Macedonians[sic] populates Northern Greece.” In the 2009 European elections that took place in Greece with 9,995,992 countrywide registered voters and out of 5,261,036 actual votes cast, the ethnic FYROM Rainbow Party aka Vinozhito tallied 4,530 votes or 0.0008629% of the votes cast. Such numbers are a little bit short of the claimed “large ethnic Macedonian[sic] population,” i.e. Slavic minority inhabiting Greece.
The essential difference between nationalism and patriotism is that in nationalism one wants to take land which belongs to one’s neighbor, whereas in patriotism one wants to keep what is one’s own. The FYROM diaspora promotes maps of a Greater Macedonia, which claim lands from all adjacent countries and especially Greece and demonstrate the Sun of Vergina. As for the contributions of the 60,000 FYROM diaspora of Australia might be great, but it cannot offset the impact that the 550,000 strong Greek diaspora has in the Australian society and politics.
About Marcus A. Templar
Marcus A. Templar has served in the U.S. Army as a cryptologic linguist, military intelligence instructor, and all source / SIGINT analyst. His academic research includes the political ideology of Bulgarian intellectuals in Macedonia after the Commune of Paris and the effect of their ideology to the establishment, development, and activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) aka VMRO.
It is common sense for a country (regardless of the political ideology of its people) to unite on issues of importance regarding national security and national interests. One expects political divisions in a country, but to my knowledge, in no other country in the world do domestic political quarrels transcend common sense to the point of stupidity as in Greece. It seems as though the national goal of the Greek people is the obliteration of Greece. Local political divides should and must stop at the borders of the country!
Because foreign policy encompasses a country’s national security and its national interests, it should be national, cohesive, and coherent, with all parties adhering to it. International law based on diplomatic instruments affects domestic policies and legislation and, of course, the life of the citizens of a country. Such important documents usually do not see the light of day in the Greek Parliament. In my view, the most important document of modern Greece that has hit the heart of Greece’s national security and territorial integrity – the 1995 Interim Agreement between Greece and the FYROM – in violation of Article 28 of the Constitution was bypassed and never ratified by the Parliament. To my knowledge, not one politician of any party yelled, “Foul.” The Constitution provides for ministerial decisions only when referring to secondary rules of law or administrative matters such as recruitment, dismissal, promotion, transfer agents, definition guarantees, etc. These are simply executive decisions. But the Parliament must ratify treaties, conventions and such!
Every single political party has had its own ideas on how to save the country by essentially staying on the sidelines and using emotion and ideology instead of knowledge, experience, and critical thinking. By remaining on the sidelines, the Greeks have allowed others to write the rules, leaving the Greek people to swallow the excuse: “We are a small country; the great powers write the rules!”
No party should monopolize Greece’s foreign policy!
We pride ourselves on the fact that we gave Democracy to the world. Although I agree that this is the case, I would argue that we never kept that idea for ourselves. Demagoguery, anarchy, personal attacks are not part of democracy; they are part of the chaos, and it is why Greece has not only failed: she has defeated herself!
The voters of Greece vote for incompetent politicians who choose advisors according to their image, equally ignorant and inept. Of them, the elected ministers are as irrelevant to the post they are serving as the leader of the governing party. These inept nickel-and-dime politicians represent the country abroad also!
On the other hand, foreign officials place the right people in the right place, knowing well the subject matter for discussion and decision. They even prepare detail biographical summaries of their contacts before they meet, in order to know with whom they are dealing.
Greek politicians have no knowledge to juxtapose any arguments of their collocutors to the defense of the country’s position, or even to promote Greece’s positions. They represent Greece’s national interests unprepared, like a lamb on its way to the slaughterhouse. They are more concerned about being team players and declaring unearned “victories,” rather than taking care of the country’s national interests. Often, they will even agree with the position of the foreign dignitaries, citing as an excuse: “If I do as I feel I should, I will not be re-elected!” A negative and spineless performance. Why is this happening?
Perceptions of reality, more so than objective reality, are crucial to the decisions of public officials. What policymakers believe to have taken place in any given case is what matters, more so than what happened: “The key is perception, the process by which decision-makers detect and assign meaning to inputs from their environment and formulate their purposes and intents” (Ole Holsti 1968, 128). Such perceptions created by Skopje and its Pan-Slavist friends invigorate and jolt the morale of the FYROM Slavs, while they simultaneously demoralize the Greeks, especially in these trying times of significant domestic upheaval that keep the Greek government busy with many more important and traumatic issues.
We are all familiar with the Asia Minor Catastrophe. It must become a lesson to avoid recurrence. We cannot blame a single political party for the constant failure of Greece’s foreign policy, just as we cannot blame unknown dark forces lurking to crush the Greeks because … “they are jealous of Greece” or “they want to destroy us!”
Greeks are the sole custodian of Greece’s national interests, territorial integrity, and national security. No one else is!
However, the issue is much deeper. The national security strategy – as the country envisions its full strategic spectrum – requires it to answer two questions: “What is it in our interest to prevent? What should we seek to accomplish?” (Kissinger 1969, 92).
Since the fall of the junta in 1974, the Greek Establishment, i.e. the Political Elite and the mass media, have done an awful job in governing the country and informing the people. The political elite, whether as government or as “the loyal opposition,” have done nothing to elevate the ideals of its offspring; instead they have managed to kill any vision possible in the name of populism and personal promotion. “Where there is no vision, the people perish” KJV, Proverbs 29:18). They have defrauded the Greek nation!
The Establishment is entirely responsible for creating a nation of people with no common sense by repeating the same mistakes over-and-over, while expecting different results; embracing an attitude of self-righteousness, disobedience, narcissism, and self-pity as justification for its errors. The Establishment furthermore has succeeded in molding selfish, ignorant, gullible, and title-decorated, but uneducated grinning individuals who throw their “smart” one-liners and memorized punch lines indicating blunt acumen. Instead of understanding the message and acting accordingly, they choose to smear the reputation of the messenger in an attempt to sidetrack their collocutor from the issue at hand. The Greek Establishment has betrayed the trust of the Greek nation!
Politicians have claimed that during the dictatorship Greece’s economy was in shambles. The fact is that when the country returned to democracy in 1974, Greece had a surplus of 178 million U.S. dollars. Within five years (in 1980), Greece accumulated a debt equal to 22.60% of its GDP, to the point of about 180% in 2015 (TradingEconomics.com). How can any politician explain this mess?
The mass media, being narrowly partisan and incredibly dogmatic, preferred to keep silent – worse yet, it launched attacks against those who dared to voice a differing opinion on the detriment of Greek society by denouncing them with appellations, such as “Μακεδονομάχος,” and making patriotism an insult. Whenever politicians exercised their constitutional right to disagree with the “infallible leader” of their party, the mass media, as the “leader” of free speech, termed those individuals a “δελφίνος”, thus conveniently creating conditions under which responsible politicians were forced to perjure themselves (Constitution Articles 59.1 and 60.1).
Although the mass media members recognized that something was wrong, rather than correct the situation, they engaged in smearing the reputations of honest patriots. Even people of the cloth were attacked for loving their homeland. The political inclinations of the media moguls received more consideration, as did the pressure from political clowns, to whom the members of the media bowed, disregarding their duty to inform and not misinform. They intentionally misled the public’s expectations and eradicated its dreams. They have deceived the Greek nation!
Day in and day out, the Greek Establishment has created new standards, degrading Greece’s already weak position even further. Not one government of Greece has fully cherished or suitably utilized the geostrategic importance of the country! Their understanding of geostrategic importance covers geographical position and physiography. They have completely ignored the importance of the ethnic cohesion of the population. It is the same with education, standard of living, and trends, as population values develop within their domain. In addition, the same governments have overlooked the proper use of resources to the point of negligence, and even deliberate indifference, “according to their private ambition and covetousness, perniciously both for themselves and their confederates” (Thucydides II.65.7). Two and a half millennia ago, the conduct of the Athenian politicians that led their city to its near annihilation should be a lesson for us (Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.2.19-23). We had a chance to learn from it and change. But nobody cared.
The condition of the Greek nation abroad is not any different. We have one of the largest Diasporas in the United States, but there is an un-utilized great national power – soft power (electorate, culture, and history) and hard power (economic means) – to influence the attitude of the American establishment. The Jews, Turks, Skopjans, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, and other groups, which are even smaller in number than us – except for the Jews – have trumped us. Instead of looking for allies, we resort to castigating them. What are they doing wrong? They do what they can for their homeland or for the land of their ancestry; the question is: What are we doing for ours? My suggestion does not imply prima facie alliances; but genuine and profound coalitions, working daily for the betterment of our nation, and turning alliances into lasting friendships!
Every Tom, Dick and Harry mentions our powerful lobby – not out of respect, but as a matter of mockery! We have a warped sense of reality that embodies an individualistic discernment, a local view, and a partisan perception of Greece’s present, rather than the interest to work together on a collective foresight, an ethnic perspective, and a national vision of Greece’s future!
After Turkey invaded Cyprus in 1974, we saw the arms embargo on Turkey lifted barely a few years later, while the blockade of weapons on the victim, Cyprus, was lifted only a couple of years ago. Since 1974, time-and-again, Turkey has been playing games and exhibits its military might against Greece and Cyprus. And when we complain to U.S. officials, they cite Turkey’s strategic location as the excuse. We are even incapable of reversing Turkey's seclusion of Famagusta!
Albania shifted the very legitimate agreement it made on the sea delineation with Greece to reflect its sole interests – at the expense of Greece. We have seen Skopje do whatever it pleases. We see countries that Greece has helped toward gaining membership to international organizations (e.g. Slovenia), turn around and support the Skopjans in their bidding. We have sensed the new awakening of Pan-Slavism with Russia, its originator, leading the way (Vlček 2002, 43; Koliševski 1980, 152; Jelavich 1958, 12-13). It is time now for us to wake up and smell the coffee!
Our rivals have dynamic advocacy groups, which work in educating politicians and honest citizens. They use periodicals of national scale in the United States, Canada and Australia disseminating “truths” as they see them. But when and if we utilize our experts, they lecture the Greek Diaspora, preaching in essence to the choir, while leaving politicians and citizens at the mercy of our rivals’ activism!
Lobbying, advocacy, and public relations to the untrained mind might sound similar: but they are neither identical nor are they interchangeable. While “Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics” (Public Relations Society of America - PRSA) requiring many smiles, lobbying (direct or grassroots) along with advocacy, they also entail empirical and academic expertise in various dimensions of particular subject matters and their cognate fields. They are the result of a team effort of experts in all, even remotely related, aspects. They all require much money, imagination, and, most of all, critical thinking – and not the harbored sickening ambition of an overinflated ego of a single omniscient Greek. One size fits all does not do it either. The most important elements that people ignore are a low profile and, when possible, secrecy. That is how a fait accompli materializes!
Should Greece “import” a government? One doubts whether the present Establishment would allow Greeks from abroad to take over ministries relevant to the professional background of the “invaders” to fix the mess which the system has created and nurtured for years. Assuming that this could be the case, the “imported” Greeks, by applying their know-how and their skills of handling the job uncontaminated by corruptive ministries, would prove the incompetence of professional politicians. Greece, to the detriment of those who pretend to be the political elite of Greece, would never be the same!
Currently, Greece does not qualify as a functioning state. Briefly, a state’s obligations toward its citizens include – but are not limited -- to providing security for its people, as well as equal protection under the law, and services, such as the infrastructure that promote an individual's human rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Citizens finance these obligations of the state through taxation, expecting a reasonably professional civil service in return. This is not happening in Greece. Employment through individual merit is an unknown commodity in the country! Cronyism, nepotism, patronage, influence-peddling, graft, and even embezzlement are means available to citizens for employment. But even if a politician wants to work for the people, as politicians are supposed to, they will be attacked from all sides, because what they’re doing is against the established system!
Most of the so-called representatives of the Greek Parliament are treated as monarchs, if we apply the definition of heredity by blood or marriage. Also, they and their friends enjoy a lifetime-immunity that exempts them from any criminal act during their thieving career (or they may simply by-pass legal proceedings). Worst of all is that they do not even represent the areas they claim to. They are accountable for their district of residence, i.e. Athens. It is precisely why, by far, most of the representatives in the Greek Parliament own homes in Attica. Greek ministries and their employees see Greece as starting in Thebes and ending in Corinth. And the people of Greece do not see the fruits of their paid taxes, since, by far, most of the tax money stays in Athens for the benefit of Attica!
In any event, the problem lies with the voters of Greece. The people of Greece are delusional in creating facts in their minds out of hot air. They support those self-sought “realities,” and when such “realities” do not materialize, they point to conspiracies and foreign inimical groups and governments (e.g. the Americans, the Zionists), making them the cause of their discontent. What has happened to voter responsibility? Worst of all is that those who manage Greece's crisis - products of the delusions themselves - are in turn deceived as well. Thus far, they have offered solutions that are simple improvisations, patchworks, serving nothing and creating havoc. They fail to understand why the country is hit from every direction as they lie in their world of a tested and failed political and economic system of yesteryear. They have no idea whether they are coming or going. They have reached the stage of Nirvana hoping for the best. The problem is that Nirvana means “blown out, extinguished.” They have missed the personal and political responsibility to their country and to their nation!
What Greece needs is business and financial development, since “personal freedom and ownership are the fundamental elements of prosperity, which advance the consolidation of human capital and education. Those two components promote science, technology, and innovation. The last three elements, developed to a balanced and stable economic growth, are relevant to national security. They are part of the Greek psyche.” (Templar 2014). Greece’s foreign and domestic policies need to change. Ideals, aka values such as “Justice, Personal Freedom, Ownership, and Honor,” determined the goals that the developing independent Greek nation had hoped to achieve, so that its offspring could physically and psychologically feel secure and prosperous. Once such ideals are dead, the Hellenic nation is dead as well. It is time for the Greeks to wake up! The coffee is brewing to unsettle last night’s (decades old) stupor from too much ouzo!
About Marcus A. Templar
Marcus Alexander Templar is a former codebreaker and Principal Subject Matter Expert in Intelligence Analysis. During his military career, he has supported intelligence operations on a national level, and served as instructor in a number of U.S. Intelligence Schools.
His academic research includes the political ideology of Bulgarian intellectuals after the Commune of Paris and the effect of their ideology to the establishment, development, and activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization aka VMRO. The research also examines the organization’s activities in order to create a communist regime of the Bulgarians in Macedonia at least 20 years before the founding of the USSR.
More specifically, his work analyzes the relationship and interaction among members and factions of the organization with contemporary political, pan-Slavic movements and governments, as well as the organization’s political and terrorist activities. Pedagogically he is interested in matters of national security, public governmental policy, and strategy.
He holds a BA from Western Illinois University in the social sciences and humanities (Macomb, Illinois), Master's degree from Northeastern Illinois University in Human Resource Development (Chicago, Illinois) and a second Masters in Strategic Intelligence from the National Intelligence University (Washington, DC) specializing in the southern Balkans and Turkey.
"Although most experts would ascribe the strategic culture of Turkey to the events that took place between the armistice at Mudros (October 30, 1918) and the Treaty of Sevres (August 10, 1920), the cause for Turkey's strategic culture goes back to the 18th century. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed on July 21, 1774 established peace between Imperial Russia and the Ottoman Empire after their conflict of 1768-74. However, the Great Powers of the time habitually intervened in the domestic affairs of the Ottoman State, and later Empire, under one pretext or another imposing their will in accordance with their own national interests.
The then Great Powers (Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) did not just interfere in the domestic affairs of the Ottoman State, but made decisions over the sovereignty of the state and even carved and shared territories without consideration for the Sultan. The powers agreed to the need of political reforms both in Bosnia (Austro-Hungarian interest), but also in the Ottoman territories in which their majority had Bulgarian population (Russian interest). Through wars, Russia succeeded in claiming the Ottoman provinces of Kars and Batumi in the Caucasus and gave autonomy or independence to principalities, especially to Christian nations."
(c) 2015 Marcus A. Templar
Although the focus of this paper is Skopje’s political efficiency, in order for the untrained reader to comprehend the issue, one must have a general idea about the formation of a nation’s national security policy. Below, I am attempting to offer in very general and rudimental terms enough information regarding a country's national security, as I have deemed necessary to establish a reasonable background. Oftentimes this paper refers implicitly or explicitly to war. Such references are intentional, because politics and war, although they differ in means of delivery, they aim at identical objectives, i.e.the imposition of one’s will over another. Thus, when one reads a text that in one’s mind it is associated with war, one should convert one’s thoughts as if the subject refers to politics.
Twenty Years after Independence: Activities of the Government, the Citizens, and the Diaspora of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (The FYROM) for the Appropriation and Possession of the Name “Macedonia”
The FYROM’s purpose is to have the new state recognized as Macedonia, including the “Macedonian” ethnicity and heritage and achieve the goals set in 1893 by the terrorist organization Internal Macedonian-Thracian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO). From its establishment more than 100 years ago, VMRO’s goal has always been the incorporation of the geographic Macedonia as portrayed in the map of a Bulgarian cartographer, Vasil Kŭnchov (pronounced Kanchov or Kanchev in Bulgarian), in order to serve the political strategic goals of Bulgaria that were modified by the VMRO in the beginning of the 20th century. The map was ethnically distorted so that “the validity of Kanchev’s [Kanchov] concept of Macedonia as a geographical region depends upon the criteria used to measure regional affinities.”
Turkey is experiencing an existential fight. The Western perspective that Turkey is an island of stability is proving to be false because Turkey is awash with instability. The reality that haunts the Turkish Republic from its inception is dangerously revealing itself. Kemal's dream was to Europeanize Turkey, but the foundations he forcibly set have remained stagnant while Euurope keeps developing. Government institutions in Turkey look back to Kemalism fearing that deviation from Kemalist ideals could bring the end of their state. Turkey has been built on the pricinples of Pan-Turkism that are no longer acceptable in Europe and, as she is not an ethnically and racially homogenous country, this alone is the cornerstone of instability. It is the reason for its political upheaval, social discontent, lack of human rights, and military and police constant supervision. The old philosophies that held the citizens of Turkey together an no longer valid.
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