The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Roumania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. As Bulgaria had been completely isolated in the Second Balkan War, and as she was closely invested on her northern boundary by the armies of Roumania on her western frontier by the allied armies of Greece and Serbia, and in the East by the Turkish Army, she was obliged, in her helplessness, to submit to such terms as her victorious enemies chose to impose upon her. All important arrangements and concessions involving the rectification of the controverted international boundary lines were perfected in a series of committee meetings, incorporated in separate protocols, and formally ratified by subsequent action of the general assembly of delegates.
By the terms of the treaty, Bulgaria ceded to Roumania all that portion of the Dobrudja lying north of a line extending from the Danube just above Turtukaia to the western shore of the Black Sea, south of Ekrene. This important territorial Concession has an approximate area of 2,687 square miles, a population of 286,000, and includes the fortress of Silistria and the cities of Turtukaia on the Danube and Baltchik on the Black Sea. In addition, Bulgaria agreed to dismantle all existing fortresses and bound herself not to construct forts at Rustchuk or at Schumla or in any of the territory between these two cities, or within a radius of 20 kilometers around Baltchick.
3. SERBIA'S GAIN IN TERRITORY
The eastern frontier of Serbia was drawn from the summit of Patarika, on the old frontier, and followed the watershed between the Vardar and the Struma Rivers to the Greek-Bulgarian boundary, except that the upper valley of the Strumnitza remained in the possession of Bulgaria. The territory thus obtained embraced central Macedonia, including Ochrida, Monastir, Kossovo, Istib, and Kotchana, and the eastern half of the sanjak of Novi-Bazar. By this arrangement Serbia increased her territory from 18,650 to 33,891 square miles and her population by more than 1,500,000.
4. GREECE'S GAIN IN TERRITORY
The boundary line separating Greece from Bulgaria was drawn from the crest of Mount Belashitcha to the mouth of the Mesta River, on the Aegean Sea. This important territorial concession, which Bulgaria resolutely contested, in compliance with the instructions embraced in the notes which Russia and Austria-Hungary presented to the conference, increased the area of Greece from 25,014 to 41,933 square miles and her population from 2,660,000 to 4,363,000. The territory thus annexed included Epirus, southern Macedonia, Salonika, Kavala, and the Aegean littoral as far east as the Mesta River, and restricted the Aegean seaboard of Bulgaria to an inconsiderable extent of 70 miles, extending from the Mesta to the Maritza, and giving access to the Aegean at the inferior port of Dedeagatch. Greece also extended her northwestern frontier to include the great fortress of Janina. In addition, Crete was definitely assigned to Greece and was formally taken over on December 14, 1913.
5. BULGARIA'S GAIN IN TERRITORY
Bulgaria's share of the spoils, although greatly reduced, was not entirely negligible. Her net gains in territory, which embraced a. portion of Macedonia, including the town of Strumnitza, western Thrace, and 70 miles of the Aegean littoral, were about 9,663 square miles, and her population was increased by 129,490.
6. APPRAISEMENT OF THE TREATY
By the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest, Roumania profited most in proportion to her sacrifices. The unredeemed Roumanians live mostly in Transylvania, the Bukovina, and Bessarabia, and therefore the Balkan wars afforded her no adequate opportunity to perfect the rectification of her boundaries on ethnographic lines.
The humiliating terms imposed on Bulgaria were due to her own impatience and intemperate folly. The territory she secured was relatively circumscribed; she had failed to emancipate Macedonia, which was her avowed purpose in entering the war; she lost the districts of Ochrida and Monastir, which she especially coveted; she was assigned only a small line on the Aegean, with the wretched port of Dedeagatch; and she was obliged to forfeit her ambition as the leader of the Balkan hegemony.
Greece, though gaining much, was greatly dissatisfied. The acquisition of Saloniki was a triumph; she was assigned the port of Kavala and the territory eastward at the insistence of the King and the army and contrary to the advice of Venizelos; in the northwest Greece encountered the opposition of Italy by urging her claims to southern Albania; in the assignment of the Aegean Islands she was profoundly dissatisfied; and she still claims 3,000,000 unredeemed conationals.
The fundamental defects of the Treaty of Bucharest were that (1) the boundaries which it drew bore little relation to the nationality of the inhabitants of the districts affected, and that (2) the punishment meted out to Bulgaria, while perhaps deserved in the light of her great offense in bringing on the, Second Balkan War, was so severe that she could not accept the treaty as a permanent settlement. While Serbia, Greece, and Roumania can not escape a large share of the blame for the character of the treaty, it should not be forgotten that their action at Bucharest was in large measure due to the settlement forced upon the Balkan States by the great powers at the London conferences.
The Plenipotentiaries and Stipulations of the Treaty of Bucharest of August 10, 1913 were as follows:
Peace Treaty between Roumania, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia and Bulgaria.
THEIR MAJESTIES the King of Roumania, the King of the Hellenes, the King of Montenegro, and the King of Serbia, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians, on the other part, animated by the desire to put an end to the state of war at present existing between their respective countries and wishing, for the sake of order, to establish peace between their long-suffering peoples, have resolved to conclude a definitive treaty of peace. Their said Majesties have, therefore, appointed as their plenipotentiaries, namely:
His Majesty the King of Roumania: His Excellency Titus Maioresco, President of his Council of Ministers, Minister of Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Alexander Marghiloman, his Minister of Finance; His Excellency Take Jonesco, his Minister of the Interior; His Excellency Constantin G. Dissesco, his Minister of Public Worship and Public Instruction; Major-General C. Coanda, Aide-de-camp, Inspector-General of Artillery; Colonel C. Christesco, Assistant Chief of the General Staff of his Army;
His Majesty the King of the Hellenes: His Excellency Elefterios Venizelos, President of his Council of Ministers, Minister of War; His Excellency Demetre Panas, Minister Plenipotentiary; M. Nicolas Politis, Professor of International Law in the University of Paris; Captain Ath. Exadactylos; Captain C. Pali;
His Majesty the King of Montenegro: His Excellency General Serdar Yanko Voukotitch, President of his Council of Ministers, Minister of War; M. Jean Matanovitch, formerly Charge d'Affaires of Montenegro at Constantinople;
His Majesty the King of Serbia: His Excellency Nicolas P. Pasitch, President of his Council of Ministers, Minister of Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Milhailo G. Ristitch, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Bucharest; His Excellency Dr. Miroslaw Spalaikovitch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; Colonel K. Smilianitch; Lieutenant-Colonel D. Kalafatovitch;
His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians: His Excellency Dimitri Tontcheff, his Minister of Finances; Major-General Ivan Fitcheff, Chief of Staff of his Army; M. Sawa Ivantchoff, Doctor of Laws, formerly Vice-President of the Sobranje; M. Simeon Radeff; Lieutenant-Colonel Constantin Stancioff of the General Staff;
Who, in accordance with the proposal of the Royal Government of Roumania, have assembled in conference at Bucharest, with full powers, which were found to be in good and due form, and who having happily reached an accord, have agreed upon the following stipulations:-
From the day on which the ratifications of the present treaty are exchanged there shall be peace and amity between His Majesty the King of Roumania, His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians, His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, His Majesty the King of Montenegro, and His Majesty the King of Serbia, as well as between their heirs and successors, their respective States and subjects.
The former frontier between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Roumania, from the Danube to the Black Sea, is, in conformity with the proces-verbal drawn up by the respective military delegates and annexed to Protocol No.5 of July 22 (August 4), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, rectified in the following manner:-
The new frontier shall begin at the Danube above Turtukaia and terminate at the Black Sea to the south of Ekrene.
Between these two extreme points the frontier line shall follow the line indicated on the I/100,000 and I/200,000 maps of the Roumanian General Staff, and according to the description annexed to the present article.
It is formally understood that within a maximum delay of two years Bulgaria shall dismantle the existing fortifications and shall not construct others at Rustchuk, at Shumla, in the intervening country, and in a zone of twenty kilometres around Baltchik.
A mixed commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each of the two High Contracting Parties, shall be charged, within fifteen days from the signing of the present treaty, with delimiting the new frontier in conformity with the preceding stipulations. This commission shall supervise the division of the lands and funds which up to the present time may have belonged in common to districts, communes, or communities separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement as to the line or as to the method of marking it, the two High Contracting Parties agree to request a friendly Government to appoint an arbitrator, whose decision upon the points at issue shall be considered final.
The frontier between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Serbia shall follow, conformably to the proces-verbal drawn up by the respective military delegates, which is annexed to Protocol No.9 of July 25 (August 7), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, the following line:-
The frontier line shall begin at the old frontier, from the summit of Patarica, follow the old Turco-Bulgarian frontier and the dividing line of the waters between the Vardar and the Struma, with the exception of the upper valley of the Strumitza, which shall remain Serbian territory; the line shall terminate at the Belasica Mountain, where it will bend back to the Greco-Bulgarian frontier. A detailed description of this frontier and the I/200,000 map of the Austrian General Staff, on which it is indicated, are annexed to the present article. A mixed commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each of the two High Contracting Powers, shall be charged, within fifteen days from the signing of the present treaty, with delimiting the new frontier, in conformity with the preceding stipulation. This commission shall supervise the division of the lands and funds, which up to the present time may have belonged in common to the districts, communes, or communities separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement as to the line or as to the method of marking it, the two High Contracting Parties agree to request a friendly Government to appoint an arbitrator, whose decision upon the points at issue shall be considered final.
Questions relating to the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier shall be settled according to the understanding reached by the two High Contracting Parties, as stated in the protocol annexed to the present article.
The frontier between the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Bulgaria shall follow, conformably to the proces-verbal drawn up by the respective military delegates and annexed to Protocol No.9 of July 25 (August 7), 1913, of the Conference of Bucharest, the following line:- The frontier line shall start from the new Serbo-Bulgarian frontier on the summit of Belasica Planina and terminate at the mouth of the Mesta on the Aegean Sea.
Between these two extreme points the frontier line shall follow the line indicated on the I/200,000 map of the Austrian General Staff, in accordance with the description annexed to the present article.
A mixed commission, composed of an equal number of representatives of each of the two High Contracting Parties, shall be charged, within fifteen days from the signing of the present treaty, with delimiting the frontier in conformity with the preceding stipulations. This commission shall supervise the division of the lands and funds, which up to the present time may have belonged in common to the districts, communes, or communities separated by the new frontier. In case of disagreement as to the line or as to the method of marking it, the two High Contracting Parties engage to request a friendly Government to appoint an arbitrator, whose decision upon the points at issue shall be considered final.
It is formally understood that Bulgaria renounces from henceforth all claim to the island of Crete.
The headquarters of the respective armies shall be immediately informed of the signing of the present treaty. The Bulgarian Government engages to begin to reduce its army to a peace footing on the day after such notification. It shall order its troops to their garrisons, whence, with the least possible delay, the various reserves shall be returned to their homes. If the garrison of any troops is situated in the zone occupied by the army of one of the High Contracting Parties, such troops shall be ordered to some other point in the old Bulgarian territory and may not return to their regular garrisons until after the evacuation of the above- mentioned occupied zone.
The evacuation of Bulgarian territory, both old and new, shall begin immediately after the demobilization of the Bulgarian army and shall be completed within a period of not more than fifteen days.
During this period the zone of demarcation for the Roumanian army of operations shall be determined by a line running as follows: Sistov-Lovcea-Turski-Isvor-Glozene-Zlatitza- Mirkov0-Araba-Konak-Orchania-Mezdra-Vratza-Berkovitza-Lom-Danube.
During the occupation of the Bulgarian territories the various armies shall retain the right of requisition in consideration of cash payment.
Such armies shall have free use of the railways for the transportation of troops and of provisions of all kinds, without compensation to the local authority. The sick and wounded shall be under the protection of the said armies.
As soon as possible after the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty all prisoners of war shall be mutually restored.
The Governments of the High Contracting Parties shall each appoint special commissioners to receive the prisoners.
All prisoners in the hands of any of the Governments shall be delivered to the commissioner of the Government to which they belong, or to his duly authorized representative, at the place which shall be determined upon by the interested parties.
The Governments of the High Contracting Parties shall present to each other, respectively, as soon as possible after all the prisoners have been returned, a statement of the direct expenses incurred through the care and maintenance of the prisoners from the date of their capture or surrender to the date of their death or return. The sums due by Bulgaria to each one of the other High Contracting Parties shall be set off against the sums due by each of the other High Contracting Parties to Bulgaria, and the difference shall be paid to the creditor Government in each case as soon as possible after the exchange of the above-mentioned statements of expense.
The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged at Bucharest within fifteen days, or sooner if it be possible.
In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have hereunto affixed their names and seals.
Done at Bucharest the twenty-eighth day of the month of July (tenth day of the month of August) in the year one thousand nine hundred and thirteen.
[At this point signatures and seals followed]
(1) Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914. Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918.
(2) Addendum: Major Peace Treaties of Modern History, 1648-1967, Vol. II, Editor Fred L Israel, New York: Chelsea House in association with McGraw Hill, 1967.